Stream.toList() 和 Collectors.toList()的性能哪个更好?

昨天给大家介绍了Java 16中的Stream增强,可以直接通过toList()来转换成List

主要涉及下面这几种转换方式:

list.stream().toList();
list.stream().collect(Collectors.toList());
list.stream().collect(Collectors.toUnmodifiableList());

然后,看到有网友评论问:Stream.toList()Collectors.toList()的区别是什么?哪个性能好?

图片[1]-Stream.toList() 和 Collectors.toList()的性能哪个更好?-Java专区论坛-技术干货-SpringForAll社区

处理结果的区别,其实上一篇文章和视频里都有说:

  • Stream.toList()返回的List是不可变List,不能增删改
  • Collectors.toList()返回的是个普通的List,可以增删改
  • Collectors.toUnmodifiableList()返回的List是不可变List,不能增删改

而至于性能的话,今天我们就来测试一下,看看哪个性能更好。

@BenchmarkMode(Mode.All)
@Fork(1)
@State(Scope.Thread)
@Warmup(iterations = 20, time = 1, batchSize = 10000)
@Measurement(iterations = 20, time = 1, batchSize = 10000)
public class BenchmarkStreamToList {

@Benchmark
public List<Integer> streamToList() {
return IntStream.range(1, 1000).boxed().toList();
}

@Benchmark
public List<Integer> collectorsToList() {
return IntStream.range(1, 1000).boxed().collect(Collectors.toList());
}

@Benchmark
public List<Integer> streamToList() {
return IntStream.range(1, 1000).boxed().toList();
}

}

结果报告:

Benchmark                                                                                  Mode  Cnt   Score    Error  Units
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList thrpt 20 24.422 ± 0.268 ops/s
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList thrpt 20 22.784 ± 0.599 ops/s
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList thrpt 20 31.779 ± 1.732 ops/s
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList avgt 20 0.045 ± 0.006 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList avgt 20 0.062 ± 0.035 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList avgt 20 0.040 ± 0.028 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList sample 445 0.046 ± 0.002 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.00 sample 0.039 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.50 sample 0.041 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.90 sample 0.057 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.95 sample 0.073 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.99 sample 0.102 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.999 sample 0.150 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.9999 sample 0.150 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p1.00 sample 0.150 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList sample 460 0.044 ± 0.001 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.00 sample 0.042 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.50 sample 0.044 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.90 sample 0.046 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.95 sample 0.047 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.99 sample 0.051 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.999 sample 0.057 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.9999 sample 0.057 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p1.00 sample 0.057 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList sample 655 0.031 ± 0.001 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.00 sample 0.030 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.50 sample 0.031 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.90 sample 0.032 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.95 sample 0.033 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.99 sample 0.035 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.999 sample 0.037 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.9999 sample 0.037 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p1.00 sample 0.037 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList ss 20 0.043 ± 0.001 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList ss 20 0.045 ± 0.004 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList ss 20 0.031 ± 0.001 s/op

从报告中我们可以看到:

  • 吞吐量:streamToList > collectorsToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList
  • 平均耗时:streamToList > collectorsToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList
  • p0.9999耗时:streamToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList > collectorsToList
  • 冷启动耗时:streamToList > collectorsToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList

所以,Stream.toList()的性能要各方面都要好于Collectors.toList()Collectors.toUnmodifiableList()

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图片[2]-Stream.toList() 和 Collectors.toList()的性能哪个更好?-Java专区论坛-技术干货-SpringForAll社区

再放大一些数据量,试试:

@Benchmark
public List<Integer> streamToList() {
return IntStream.range(1, 10000).boxed().toList();
}

@Benchmark
public List<Integer> collectorsToList() {
return IntStream.range(1, 10000).boxed().collect(Collectors.toList());
}

@Benchmark
public List<Integer> streamToList() {
return IntStream.range(1, 10000).boxed().toList();
}

结果报告:

Benchmark                                                                                  Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList thrpt 20 2.186 ± 0.162 ops/s
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList thrpt 20 2.184 ± 0.042 ops/s
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList thrpt 20 3.538 ± 0.058 ops/s
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList avgt 20 0.426 ± 0.004 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList avgt 20 0.469 ± 0.016 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList avgt 20 0.293 ± 0.008 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList sample 58 0.448 ± 0.049 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.00 sample 0.414 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.50 sample 0.422 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.90 sample 0.458 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.95 sample 0.560 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.99 sample 1.160 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.999 sample 1.160 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p0.9999 sample 1.160 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList:collectorsToList·p1.00 sample 1.160 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList sample 60 0.458 ± 0.004 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.00 sample 0.447 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.50 sample 0.455 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.90 sample 0.471 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.95 sample 0.482 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.99 sample 0.492 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.999 sample 0.492 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p0.9999 sample 0.492 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList:collectorsToUnmodifiableList·p1.00 sample 0.492 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList sample 78 0.293 ± 0.012 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.00 sample 0.277 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.50 sample 0.284 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.90 sample 0.309 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.95 sample 0.377 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.99 sample 0.459 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.999 sample 0.459 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p0.9999 sample 0.459 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList:streamToList·p1.00 sample 0.459 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToList ss 20 0.474 ± 0.133 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.collectorsToUnmodifiableList ss 20 0.493 ± 0.099 s/op
BenchmarkStreamToList.streamToList ss 20 0.325 ± 0.056 s/op

从报告中我们可以看到

  • 吞吐量:streamToList > collectorsToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList
  • 平均耗时:streamToList > collectorsToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList
  • p0.9999耗时:streamToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList > collectorsToList
  • 冷启动耗时:streamToList > collectorsToList > collectorsToUnmodifiableList

所以,即使集合内的元素增大,Stream.toList()的性能在各方面依然都要好于Collectors下的方法。

好了,今天的分享就到这里,你学会了吗?

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